Towards sustainable palm oil: Social footprinting of informal and formal market value chains

Ghana is a major producer and consumer of palm oil, yet it is unable to meet domestic demand. Notwithstanding the emergence of large-scale plantations and industrial millers, smallholder farms account for approximately 80% of the land under oil palm cultivation, and 76% of crude palm oil (CPO) is processed by small-scale artisanal mills.

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Ihalainen, M.,Gallagher, E.J.,Schoneveld, G.

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